Hydraulic oil is the medium through which power is transferred in a hydraulic system or unit. It also serves as a lubricant. This dual ability of hydraulic oil makes it the most important and integral part of the hydraulic system. This article seeks to enlighten you on what to consider when buying and using hydraulic oil.
How to select the best hydraulic oil
In selecting hydraulic oil, the type and capacity of the hydraulic pump, operating temperature, and pressure of the hydraulic system in which the oil will be used must be considered. The base oil type, overall lubricant quality, and performance properties must be considered. However, there are two primary considerations in selecting the best hydraulic oil suited for you- the viscosity grade and the hydraulic oil type.
Pumps and Viscosity Requirements
Pump design types and their required viscosity grade is the first lubricant selection criteria to consider. Pump design types are three: Vane, Piston, and Gear.
Vane Pumps: The Vane pump has rotors with slots mounted on a rotating shaft spinning eccentrically to a cam ring. As the rotors and vanes spin within the cam ring, the friction between the cam, rotors, and vanes causes wear, making it more expensive to maintain. But on the flip side, they maintain a steady flow while operating. This is where the hydraulic oil as a lubricant comes in. Vane pumps require a viscosity range of 14 to 160 centistokes (CST) at operating temperatures.
Piston: Piston pumps are designed for higher durability over the vane pump. It is also more widely used with operating pressures going as high as 6,000 psi. The viscosity range for piston pumps is 10 to 160 CST at operating temperatures.
Gear: gear pumps expel fluid trapped within the gear housing and the meshed gear teeth; they can cope with a sizable amount of contamination but are the most inefficient of the three gear types. The two types of gear pumps are; internal and external.
Internal gear pumps require various hydraulic viscosity choices, which can go as high as 2,200cSt. It operates quietly but highly efficient and can produce a pressure of up to 3,000-3,500 psi. On the flip side, external gear pumps are less expensive and easy to maintain and repair. They are relatively less efficient but boast of a steady flow. External gear pumps can work up pressures ranging from 3,000 to 3,500 psi and require hydraulic fluids with a viscosity range of 300cSt.
The performance and durability of a hydraulic system or unit are highly dependent on the quality selection of hydraulic oil. The function of the machine being powered by the hydraulic system should be assessed along with its viscosity and operation to determine what hydraulic grade should be used. For instance, the hydraulic oil for a constantly used bulldozer with a leaky sump or hydraulic system shouldn’t be the most expensive because of the frequent replenishment. But a hydraulic system powering machines that perform irregular but sensitive functions requires high-quality premium products. In this case, you may want to use a highly refined petroleum-based fluid, an AW additive package, or, better still, a fully synthetic fluid.
How to use hydraulic oil to improve the performance of your vehicle
A balanced knowledge of the use of hydraulic oil will improve the performance of your engine. You need to know some tips on the everyday use of hydraulic oil that will give optimal results obtainable in automobile service centers.
Changing the oil
An oil analysis must be carried out to determine if the hydraulic oil is due for a change. Don’t just rely on hours of service; it can be misleading. Only a degradation of base oil or depletion of the additive packages should warrant a change of oil. Continued use of hydraulic oil with a degraded base oil or depleted additive package can cause damage to the hydraulic system and shorten its life span of the same. Also, changing the oil that isn’t due is a waste of resources and effort.
Changing the filters
The key to changing oil filters is closely monitoring the pressure drop across the filter. This will enable the user to determine when the dirt or debris holding capacity is reached. This is important because if the capacity is hit and the user does not change it, the bypass valve will open, and debris will get into the hydraulic system. If this happens, service life will be reduced gradually. Like the operation of an oil change, oil filters shouldn’t be changed before it is due to avoid waste of money, time, and effort. Don’t change them based on hours used according to schedule. Just keep monitoring the flow rate through the filter.
Avoid overly high temperatures.
Hydraulic oil viscosity reduces with an increase in temperature. If the operating temperature in a hydraulic system becomes too high, the oil becomes less viscous. A drop in the oil’s viscosity below that system’s acceptable level will make the oil’s lubricating function impotent. This will lead to unacceptable levels of friction and stalling. Eventually, service life is attacked. This is one of the quickest ways to destroy hydraulic components, hoses, and seals.
Using the right Hydraulic Oil
Hydraulic oil is not just a lubricant but a medium through which power is transmitted in the hydraulic system or unit. For this purpose, the viscosity property of the hydraulic oil is vital to the performance and service life of the engine.
Hydraulic oil viscosity must be in tandem with the climate in which the machine operates. Preferably, hydraulic oils with high viscosity should be ideal for engines or machines operating in tropical climates because of the hot nature of such climates. This will enable the oil to perform its lubrication function even at high machine temperatures. However, if the oil’s viscosity is too low for the prevailing climate, the lubrication function of the oil will become impotent- it won’t be able to perform its lubrication function- during the hot days of the year.
Using the wrong viscosity oil will result in damage due to lubrication and premature failure of major components in the hydraulic system. It also increases the power consumption; diesel or electricity will eventually cost more to rectify.
Why do my hydraulic hoses keep bursting?
Several reasons may include a wrong application, corrosion of the ferrules, high-pressure pulsation of the hydraulic installation, the incorrect bend radius of the installed hose, and expired hoses.
How hot should my hydraulic system be during operation?
You should have control over this. This is because the hydraulic oil used is a major determinant of the system’s temperature. Heat in a system is caused majorly by friction among moving parts which is intercepted by the oil, so the friction is reduced per time by the viscosity property of the oil. Most hydraulic systems use mineral-based hydraulic oil, depending on its centistokes viscosity; you can determine how hot the hydraulic system should be during operation from the oil manufacturer’s datasheet. In any case, as a guide, you must consider the room temperature and the work cycle of your hydraulic system. Also, refer to the designer’s original allowance for heat transference.
Is hydraulic oil safe on my skin?
Just take the safety precaution of putting on protective wear or clothing till you can confirm from the information provided by the oil supplier or manufacturer.
How can I troubleshoot or test my hydraulic system for faults?
The first thing to do is to break the system into the various components, namely:
- The prime mover (engine, electric motor, etc)
- Hydraulic pump pressure & flow
- Control gear
- Relief valve system pressure
- Motor or cylinder
It will be easier to troubleshoot on a component-by-component basis. Hydraulic systems usually come with manuals that show the user how to dismantle components for preliminary troubleshooting.
By now, you should have a pretty good grasp on what to consider when buying and using hydraulic oils.